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[Italian Food] The changes in microbial flora and the impact on the flavor during the mature process of Sarami

Wei Youbing, Wu Xiang, Zhou Hui, Xu Baocai, Li Xinfu (1. Meat processing and quality control National Key Laboratory, Jiangsu Yurun Meat Food Co., Ltd., Nanjing, Jiangsu 211806; 2. Maanshan Yurun Food Co., Ltd., Ma’anshan, Anhui 243,000;3. The School of Tea and Food and Technology, Anhui Agricultural University, 230036, Hefei, Anhui; 4. School of Food Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, 230009, Anhui Hefei)

Abstract: Study changes in microbial flora and flavor material changes in Milan Sarami.Results showed that lactic acid bacteria, bacteria, yeast and mold are the main superior bacteria in Milan Sarami fermentation; as the fermentation time is extended, the number of microorganisms in the product is significantly increased first and then reduced.The mature stage of fermentation and the mature stage of fermentation is the main stage of the growth of microorganisms in Milan Sarami in the process of fermentation maturity; through the volatile material of Milan Sarami through the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method, a total of 58 volatile properties were detected.Flavor substances, including hydrocarbons (12 species), alcohol (12 species), aldehyde (10 types), ester (4 types), ketone acid (7 species), phenol ether (5 species), and other(8 types), microorganisms during fermentation plays a vital role in forming these flavors.

Keywords: Sarami; microorganisms; fermented meat products

my country is a big country in the world in the world. Most of the meat industry consumption is limited to fresh meat and traditional pickled bacon products. The variety is relatively single.Fermented meat products refer to the use of microorganisms to produce a special flavor, color and texture, and have a long shelf life with the fermentation effect of microorganisms under natural or artificial control conditions [1].Fermental sausages generally do not need to be kept in refrigeration. It mainly uses a lower pH value and lower moisture activity to inhibit the growth and reproduction of mixed bacteria and harmful pathogenic bacteria [2], thereby extending the shelf period to ensure the quality of the productEssenceMilan Salami is a typical fermented meat product. It has a great consumer market in Europe, but it has less consumption in my country, and the development and production of Salami, which is suitable for domestic consumers, has gradually become the development of domestic meat products. New Direction.In the process of fermentation and maturity of fermented meat products, microbial flora plays a vital role in the flavor, color and safety of the product [3].The common beneficial microorganisms in fermented meat products mainly include some species in bacteria, mold and yeast, and most of them are lactic acid bacteria [4].Lactic acid bacteria can improve the hygiene of the final product in meat [5] and sensory quality. It is a necessary fermentation agent and an important microbiology indicator for determining food quality [6].Due to the different raw materials, initial colonies and processing techniques of meat products, different flavors and tastes produced in the products, resulting in different flavors of different fermented meat products.

In this study, based on Milan Sarami fermented sausage as the research object, in response to the changes in the number of major fermented bacteria during the fermentation process, the changes in microbial flora during the mature process of Sarami fermented.By monitoring the changes in the total number of colonies, lactic acid bacteria, bacteria, yeast, and mold in the process of Sarami, determine the change trend of microbial flora in the process of fermentation of Sarami and its impact on product quality.At the same time, by analyzing the flavor substances in fermented meat products, it is determined that its typical fragrance substances have important reference significance for identifying the flavor of the product.In addition, analyzing the composition and relative content of flavors in Sarami, which is an important role in the research of flavors and mechanisms in the process of promoting the formation of flavors in the process of pushing Sarami.This study is conducive to providing theoretical basis and technical guidance for Milan Sarami production and processing, and provides a scientific, complete quality and quality evaluation system, which is of great significance for improving the quality and quality of Milan Sarami to further meet the needs of consumers.

1 material and method

1.1 Materials and reagents

Ingredients: frozen pork, spices (black pepper, garlic powder, Milan Sarami special seasoning), salt, glucose, D-sodium resistance sodium, potassium nitrate, sodium nitrite and other Jiangsu Yurun Meat Food Co., Ltd.Standard USACCUSTANDARD Inc Company; sulfulin, ethylene, ethyleine tethalotic acid, ethylene glycol tethalidine, triathlery aminamine, citric acid, sodium citric acid sodium, coordinate, chloroform, methanol, isopyl, and amopic propyleAlcohol, methane, ether, copper sulfate, sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid, sodium dulate sodium sulfate, Komas bright blue, dental ethanol, sodium sulfate carbonate, hydrochloric acid, NaOH, glycine, NA2HPO4, KH2PO4, KH2PO4, Potassium chloride and formaldehyde solution are pure domestic analysis.

Bacteria: SM-181 bacteria species fermented agent: consisting of Lactobacillus Sakei and Staphylococcus Xylosus (Staphylococcus Xylosus), biomass> 2.9 × 109 CFU/G, purchased from Cog Hansen (China) limitedcompany.

Cultivation Base: Improved MRS agar culture medium, bacteria selective agar medium, Sandbao weak celebrities 2 agar medium, tablet counting agar medium, and purchased from Beijing Luqiao Technology Co., Ltd..

1.2 Instrument and Equipment

SW-CJ-1FD single-sided single-sided purification workbench Suzhou Purification Equipment Co., Ltd.; UV-2600 UV-Visible Lighting Gauge Japan Shimbin Company; Allegra-64R desktop frozen centrifuge US BECKMAN; NHWY-200B desktop full temperature constant temperature constant temperatureShake bed Changzhou Noki Instrument Co., Ltd.; 2300 KJELTECTM Automatic Kaifelity Nitrogen Deterns Danish FOSS Analysis Instrument Company; 602S steady stabilization Stable FMB Instrument Beijing Liuyi Instrument Factory; FR-980 Biological Electric Physical Image Analysis System Shanghai Furi Technology Co., Ltd.; Trace MS Gas Phantom-Mass Spectrum Corporation FINNIGAN Corporation; DB-5 capillary color spectrum columns (60 m × 0.32 mm, 1 μm) American J & W Scientific; RE-52AA rotating evaporate Shanghai Yarong Biochemical Instrument Co., Ltd.; DC-12H nitrogen blower Shanghai Anpu Science Instrument Co., Ltd.; L-8900 amino acid automatic analyzer Japan Hitachi.

1.3 method

1.3.1 Sarami’s processing technology

The main processing process of Milan Salami is: raw material meat → thawing → pre -cut → twisted → sprinkler (fermented agent vaccination) → disperse → stir → fill → fermented mature → peeling packaging [7]

Operation points: Raw meat meat requires fascia without fascia, congestion and malignant impurities. It uses a low temperature thawing, the temperature of the thawing room is controlled at 0-4 ° C, the thawing to the center temperature reaches -2.5 ~ -1.5 ℃;After the meat in the pot becomes smaller, the meat in the pot is easy to grinder, and the meat stuffing can be sent to the meat grinder from the conveyor belt.The meat pieces are strangled; the mixed auxiliary materials (containing bacterial fermented agents, 10%to 13%) evenly sprinkle the surface of the meat filling on the conveyor belt, and the dispersing machine is dispersed.; After the dispersing the meat filling, the mixer is sent to the mixer through the conveyor belt, and the color is uniform. You can stop stirring with adhesion between the meat fillings. After the machine is mounted, the meat temperature must not exceed 0 ° C after stirring;Put, soak 15-30 min with salt water before filling; pour the meat stuffing after the quality after the quality is poured into the filling machine, automatically punch -in filling, the intestinal body is covered with a shrinkage net, attached to the lane, and the ends of the check -in., The intestinal body after the filling should be full and tight, and the bubbles can be visible to the naked eye; the fermentation mature: the specific fermentation mature process is shown in Table 1; the peeling packaging: remove the net set and the cassettes on the surface of the product.Cut into 2 sections in the middle, and the packaged products can be stored directly at -20 ° C for later use.

Table 1 Sarami fermentation process and sampling point

Table 1 Sampling Time Points During the Fermentation Process of Salami

Extraction of top-empty blowing and capture method, gas chromatography-mass spectrometer combination (GC-MS) technology separation identification of volatile substances and relative content of Salami, and determine the product through sensory assessment of the product.quality.Cut the Salami samples to 1.5 mm of the meat pieces, place a sample of about 5 g in a sample bottle with a volume of 40 ml, 30 min of 40 ° C.s, stored at 4 ° C, can be stored by up to 5 h; heating the sample to 60 ° C, scanning for 13 min of sacrals 40 ml/min, adsorption of Tenax adsorbent, heating the trap to 220 ° C, 220 ° C of the air gas, 220 ° C at 220 ° CAfter 2 min, directly enter the gas color spectrometer.The capture trap must be kept 30 min at 240 ° C to remove possible residues or pollutants for the next time.

Chromatographic conditions: color spectrum column: J & W DB-5 quartz hair column (60 m × 0.25 mm, 1 μm); the carrier (radon) flow velocity is 1 ml/min;Keep 3 min, rose to 130 ° C at a rate of 5 ° C/min, rise at 8 ° C/min to 200 ° C, 12 ° C/min increase to 250 ° C, keep 7 min; the diversion ratio is 1: 10.

Quality spectrometer conditions: electronic ionization source; ion source temperature 280 ℃; electronic energy 70 EV; activating voltage 350 V; launch current 200 μA; quality scanning range of 30 ~ 550 m/z.

1.4 Data processing

All data uses SPSS 20.0 software for Duncan’s multi -comparison and significant differences in differences, and uses the Origin 8.6 software for analysis and drawing.

2 Results and analysis

2.1 Microbial flora changes in the process of Salami fermentation maturity

2.1.1 The total number of colonies changes

The total number of colonies is one of the important indicators of Salami product detection.From Figure 1, it can be seen that during the processing of Sarami processing and fermentation, the total number of colonies was significantly increased with a significant increase before the fermentation maturity process.After inoculation of fermentation bacteria, the total number of colonies is 6.77 (LG (CFU/G)); in the process of pickling dehydration and high temperature fermentation, the product’s temperature is high, the relative humidity is large, and the moisture activity has increased significantly, resulting in a significant improvement, resulting in a significant improvement, which leads to a significant improvement of moisture, resulting in a significant improvement, resulting in a significant improvement, which leads to a significant improvement of water.Microbial breeding quickly; after the end of high temperature fermentation, the total number of bacteria of the product reached 7.80 (LG (CFU/G)); when fermentation was 7 to 15 d, the total number of colonies in Salami did not change much, which was as Ruiz-Moyano [9 9 [9 9], ARIEF [10], Tussauds [11], etc., are similar; as the fermentation maturity process continues, the total number of colonies in Salami shows a significant decline (P <0.05), especially the fermentation 45 dAt the stage of maturity, the total number of colonies of products dropped sharply to 4.32 (LG (CFU/G)).This is mainly due to the decrease in nutrients in the later period of fermentation, decentralized water, and decreased fermentation temperature, and low water and low temperature conditions inhibit the growth of microorganisms in the product. In addition, the effect of lactic acid bacteria in the fermentation process continues to decrease the acid value, and the microorganismsGrowth also has a certain inhibitory effect.

2.1.2 changes in the number of lactic acid bacteria

The improved MRS medium is adopted, and the amount of lactic acid bacteria is used to change the amount of lactic acid bacteria through calcium rings.It can be seen from Figure 2 that after the vaccination of fermentation bacteria, the number of lactic acid bacteria in Sarami in the process of fermentation maturity shows a significantly increased trend before stability, and then significantly decreased, which is consistent with the changes in the total number of colonies.The number of lactic acid bacteria in the raw material after inoculation is 6.10 (LG (CFU/G)), and during the mature stage of dehydration, high temperature fermentation and fermentation of 15 d, the number of lactic acid bacteria continues to increase to 7.63 (LG (CFU/G)); fermentation 15After D, the number of lactic acid bacteria of the product showed a significant reduction trend (P <0.05), and the fermentation mature was 3.22 (LG (CFU/G)) after the end of the fermentation.The overall changes in the number of lactic acid bacteria in the early stage of processing are small, and the change will change significantly after entering the fermentation period (P <0.05); in the later stage of fermentation, the number of lactic acid bacteria gradually decreases mainly due to the decrease in water activity, decreased pH value, and increased salt concentration.Make the growth of lactic acid bacteria.Lactic acid bacteria are the main advantageous bacteria in Milan Sarami fermentation. During the fermentation maturity process, they can use sugar and nitrogen -containing substances in raw materials for fermentation to generate lactic acid and reduce the pH value of the product [12].Lactic acid and a small amount of by-products, such as amber acid, methic acid, acetic acid, etc., can give the product a special flavor, break down the amino acids in protein, produce a unique flavor [13-15], reduce the generation of nitrosamines, improve the food of the productSecurity has contributed to maintaining the flavor characteristics of Milan Sarami.In addition, among the fermented agents adopted by this research, Bacteria is one of the important types of fermentation bacteria in the product fermentation agent.Baka et al. [16] studies found that Bange Bacteria can significantly inhibit the formation of bioide in fermented sausages.Bacterioplasics has a strong inhibitory effect on food -oriented pathogenic alone, which has a strong role in the fermentation and storage of Salami sausages.

2.1.3 Staphylococcus organs change

In this study, another important type of fermentation bacteria (bacteria) in the fermented agent analyzes the changes in the number of staphylococci in the number of Sarami fermented maturity with a selective medium.It can be seen from Figure 3 that the main growth stage of Staphylococcus bacteria is dehydrating stage. After inoculation of fermented bacteria in raw materials, the number of its number quickly increases to 7.35 (LG (CFU/G));The number of staphylococci in the product has decreased slightly. This is mainly due to the gradually decreased water content and fermentation temperature of the product after the dehydration stage of Salami, which affects the fermentation of bacteria; as the fermentation time continues to extend, the acidity of the product in the productCumulative and decentralized losses caused the number of grape bacteria to decline sharply; after the fermentation mature ended, the number was reduced to 2.18 (LG (CFU/G)).The bacteriococcus bacteria in this study is a common coagulatase-negative bacteria in meat fermented agents [18-19]. During the fermentation process of Sarami, Bacillus Staphylococcus has a promotion effect on the volatile flavor in the product.With nitrate reduction enzymes, protein and fat hydrolysis capabilities [20-21], produce B puppet marriage, Bya marriage fermentation produces a special Sarami flavor [22]The decomposition function shows similar effects to endogenous protease and fat hydrolyzed enzyme [23-24].

2.1.4 The number of yeast and mold changes

It can be seen from Figure 4: Since no yeast is added in raw material fermentation bacteria, the number of yeast and mold in raw materials after vaccination is only 5.31 (LG (CFU/G));To 6.25 (LG (CFU/G)); As the fermentation process continues, the number of yeast and mold in the product gradually decreases to 3.22 (LG (CFU/G)).In fermented meat products, yeast and mold mainly grow on the surface of the meat products, reducing the direct contact with oxygen and light, and play a role in anti-acid defeat [25-27], which has an important contribution to the aroma of meat products.During the high temperature fermentation stage, the temperature and relative humidity are high, the number of molds has increased significantly, and more than 90%of the molds are green mold. It changes with the temperature.It is related to the environmental temperature and relative humidity during Sarami processing.However, with the loss of water during the fermentation process and the decrease in the pH value, the number of yeast and mold in the product also decreased sharply, but the decrease of the number of yeasts in the later stage of fermentation indicates that the yeast has stronger acid resistance and low moisture resistanceThe ability of the content is consistent with the results of [11] et al. [11].

2.2 Analysis of Volatility in Salami

It can be seen from Figure 5 and Table 3 that the absorption peaks that appear at different reserved time can be concluded that the CCP of Salami detected 58 volatile flavors, namely hydrocarbon (12 types), alcohol (12 species), and aldehydes.Class (10 species), ester (4 types), ketone acid (7 types), phenol ether (5 species), and other (8 types).The relative content of different flavors is 34.30%of hydrocarbons, 13.29%alcohol, 17.17%aldehyde, 1.43%ester, 8.21%ketone, 18.39%phenol ether, and 7.21%.

Hydrocarbon, alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, and phenols are an important part of the flavor of fermented meat products.Most of the thresholds of olefin flavor components are low and have obvious fruity aroma; alcohol -flavored substances are mainly derived from oxidation of olefins, broken fat carbon chains, and metabolism of microorganisms;Low, with obvious fragrance, derived from further oxidation of alcohol substances; ketone -like flavors are the ultimate products of hydrocarbon and alcohol ingredients, mainly derived from the oxidation of the fatty acid chain and the fermentation of microorganisms; phenol flavor substancesIt has obvious aroma and fat scent. In the fermented meat products, it mainly comes from the metabolism and spices of microorganisms. Most of the ether substances are fragrant under normal temperature conditions.It is mainly derived from the flavor substances in spices. These characteristic flavors can significantly improve the flavor and quality of fermented meat products [14,21].

The 12 kinds of hydrocarbon volatile substances detected in Sarami are olefins, which are 3-Yarne, (1r)-(+)-α-蒎nene, lemonine, (1s)-(-(-(-(-(-)-Β-蒎), 3-蒈ne, 3,7,7-triple-in-triathleons-two rings [4,1,0] Geng-2-benne, isoporne, γ-pyrine, α-Embrien, β-olivene, β-stone bamboo, and 1-renf.A lot of olefin volatile substances were detected in Sarami, which may be caused by the added spices and special seasonings and microbial fermentation.The tested 12 kinds of alcohol-flavored substances are ethanol, 2,3-butanol, 1-penthal-3-alcohol, eleven alcohol, 1-methyl cycol alcohol, 2,3-pyropane.Tingol, peachyinyl, 4-tadarol, 1-methyl-4- (1-methylistylylene) -The cycol alcohol, Shun-3-reinne -1-alcohol, alcohol, β, β and β-Phenyl.These alcohol substances have important contributions to the flavor and quality of Salami. For example, the gallery and alcoholic molten alcohol and the camphor have obvious wood aroma, while β-phenylene has a light rose fragrance. The main source of the fermented meat products is hydrocarbons.Oxidation and black pepper of the fatty acid chain and seasoning.检测到的10 种醛类挥发性风味成分分别为2-甲基丁醛、2-乙基丙烯醛、苯甲醛、2-羟基庚醛、3-甲基丁醛、辛醛、反,反-2,4-Ren dihylene, Shun-7-decidide, 2-phenyl aldehyde, and aldehyde.Among them, 2-vitamin and 3-b-basedehyde are typical flavored substances in fermented meat products. They exist in different fermented sausages, ham and pickled bacon products.This is mainly because the protein and other substances in the meat are decomposed into amino acids under the action of microorganisms and their corresponding products, so that protein decomposes to produce pre -body substances with small molecular flavors and promote the formation of Salami flavors.The flavor of aldehydes and aldehyde has obvious aroma, which has an important contribution to the flavor characteristics of fermented meat products.At the same time, 4 ester flavors were detected in the CCP of Salami.The detected 7 types of ketone acid are cycosone, 2-tin ketone, 2,4-dihynne gogosterone, 6-tethene, acetic acid, 3-hydroxyl butanic acid, and glimhe acid.Geng acid and 2,4-diexone have obvious vanilla flavor, and have contributed to the aroma of fermented meat products.The detected two phenols are clove phenol and 2,6-two-uncle clone-pair-to-telol. They have obvious clove fragrance and mild spicy fragrance, which mainly comes from the fermentation of spice and lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid bacteriaThe most function is to give the product slightly acidic and mellow fermented flavor.The detected 3 types of ether are 4-hydraxyl benzoethyl ether, isoplase phenolin, and mymelon ether.Among them, 4-ethylazenyl ether is the most relatively relatively high content, which is mainly derived from anise; in addition, isoplase phenol methohar ether is also an important fragrance. It mainly comes from spices.Important part of flavor.In addition, there are 8 types of flavor ingredients such as benzene ring, amufu, and other flavors, namely inter-tolitom, 2-orthopedic beanu, alienopylene, inter-galcopenne, camphor, 1,4-two-secondMonoxyl benzene, chamomile blue, and 荜 荜 萜. The flavor characteristics of these flavor ingredients are mostly manifested as aroma and fruity aroma.The diversity of meat flavor.

2.3 Sarami Quality Inspection Report

With Q/MyB 0007S -2017 “Ferdite Extraction Model Series” as the execution standard, Salami was tested, and the testing agency was a third -party testing agency.It can be seen from Table 4 that indicators such as sensor indicators, peroxidine, heavy metal content, nitrite content and other indicators such as sensor indicators, peroxidine values, heavy metal content, and nitrite content are met.Controlling fermentation temperature, time, relative humidity and fermentation bacteria can effectively improve the quality and safety of the product.

3 conclusions

Lactobacillus, staphylococcus, yeast and mold are the main superior bacteria in Milan Sarami fermentation maturity, and as the fermentation time is extended, the number of microorganisms in the product first increases first and then decreases. Among them, high temperature fermentation maturity stageThe maturity stage of medium temperature is the main stage of microorganisms during the maturity of Milan Sarami.By analyzed the volatile flavor substances in Milan Sarami, a total of 58 volatile flavors were detected, namely hydrocarbon (12 types), alcohol (12 types), aldehydes (10 species),,, 10 types (10 species),,, 10 types (10 species),,, 10 species (10 species),, 10 types (10 species),, 10)Estes (4 types), ketone acids (7 types), phenol ether (5 species) and other (8 types).During the fermentation process, fermented germinated bacteria have a positive impact on the flavor substances in the mature process of Salami.In addition, the results of Milan Sarami’s testing projects meet the requirements of the Q/MyB 0007S -2017 standard.This study can provide theoretical basis and technical guidance for Milan Sarami’s production and processing, and provide a scientific, complete quality and quality evaluation system, which will help improve the quality and quality of Milan Salami and further meet consumer needs. Help to promote the development of the meat industry in my country.


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CHANGES of Microbial Flora During the Fermentation of Salami and their Effect on Flavor

Wei youbing1,2, wu xiang1,3,*, zhou hui1,2, xu baocai1,4, li xinfu1,2

(1.State Key Labolation of Meat Processing and Quality Control, Jiangsu yurun meat foundry co. ltd., nanjing 21806, China;’ANSHAN FOOD Co., ltd. a’AanShan 243000, china; 3.School ofTea and Food Science and Technology, Anhui Agricultual University, Hefei 230036, China; 4.School of Food Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, China)

Abstract: This Study Examined The Changes of Microbial Floral Compounds During the Processing of Milalami. ACTERIA, Staphylococcus, Yeast and Mold Were the Dominant Microbes During the Fermentation Process. Microbial Count Showed An Initial Signif I CantIncrease (P <0.5) Followed by a decrease with prolonged fermentation time. Microbial Growth Mainly Occurred from the End of the High TEMPERANTAG e to day 15 of feermentation.GAS Chromatogram-Mass Spectrometry, Including 12 Hydrocarbons, 12 Alcohols, 10 Aldehydes, 4 Esters, 7 KENOL ETHERS, and 8 Other Compounds. ICroorgans Responsible for the Fermentation Process Played A Vital Role in the Formation of the Fl Avorcompounds.

Keywords: Salami; Microbial FL ORA; Fermeented Meat Products

Wei youbing, wu xiang, zhou hui, et al. CHANGES of Microbial FL ORA During The Fermentation of Salami and their Effect on FL Avor [J]. 48-54. Doi: 10.7506/rlyj1001-8123-201812009.

Doi: 10.7506/rlyj1001-8123-201812009. Http://

Quotation format: Wei Youbing, Wu Xiang, Zhou Hui, etc. The changes in microbial flora and the impact on the flavor in the process of mating in the mature process of Salami [j]. Meat research, 2018, 32 (12): 48-54.

Article number: 1001-8123 (2018) 12-0048-07

Literature logo code: A

Category number in the middle map: TS251.6

Doi: 10.7506/rlyj1001-8123-201812009

*Telecom author: Wu Xiang (1992—), female, graduate student, research direction is meat processing and quality control.E-mail: [email protected]

The first author: Wei Youbing (1976—), male, master’s degree, research direction is meat processing and quality control.E-mail: [email protected]

Fund project: “Thirteenth Five -Year Plan” National Key R & D Plan Key Special (2016yfd0400703)

Receiving date: 2018-08-17

The network is derived from:

Wei Youbing, Wu Xiang, Zhou Hui, Xu Baocai, Li Xinfu (1. Meat processing and quality control National Key Laboratory, Jiangsu Yurun Me

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